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Questionnaires can be used to gather data for a research study. They typically have open or closed-ended questions, but some questionnaires use a combination of both. Open questions allow the respondents to respond in their own words, while closed questions provide an assortment of predetermined responses that they can choose from. Questionnaires can be administered via mail, telephone or online.

Online questionnaire surveys are becoming frequent, but it’s vital to ensure that data collected is valid and reliable. To do this, the researcher must be able of accurately measuring responses and keep track of the amount of people who fill out the survey. The researcher must be able to recognize possible reasons why someone might not respond, and address these problems (e.g. sampling bias).

Online questionnaires are also cheaper than traditional methods. This makes them a desirable alternative to traditional questionnaire-based research. However, this method is not without its limitations: online questionnaires can be difficult to analyze for their quality and validity and can cause social desirability results in the respondents.

There are many ways to minimize the impact of these limitations on online questionnaires as well as web-based experiments. This article provides a number of specific strategies that can help researchers improve the reliability and quality of their online questionnaires, like: (i) paying participants when they are finished with the questionnaire has an equivalence rate that is lower than waiting for all responses or for an intermediate process; (iii) asking participants to enter their name for receipt preparation doesn’t decrease or enhance the social value of responses; and (iv) framing the fixed portion of a payment to the participant as «for taking the survey» and providing progress feedback increases answer quality.